Description Data on nutritional status of human populations are periodically needed, as well as their relationships with anthropometry, body composition, body image and energy expenditure, and also with health lifestyle outcomes. All these parameters contribute jointly to give a complete knowledge on dietary and lifestyle habits, and hence how to proceed to improve it in order to enjoy an optimal healthy status. So, you are kindly invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Nutrients Special issue.The aim of this proposed Nutrients Special Issue on ""Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Humans"" is to publish selected papers detailing specific aspects of anthropometric, body composition and energy expenditure data in human populations and their relationships with nutritional status, as well as nutritional surveys and trials that examine measured differences or changes in these parameters are also cordially invited.
Description The composition of the atmosphere is a critical factor in understanding the nature and magnitude of processes associated with the planet’s energy balance, clouds and precipitation, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and public health and welfare. A detailed understanding of trace gases, aerosol particles, and hydrometeors is challenging due to the combination of their physicochemical complexity, variable lifetimes, and spatial inhomogeneity. Recent advances in instrumentation have resulted in improved measurements and an increased understanding of atmospheric composition. Laboratory and field in-situ measurement studies have benefited from such improvements, including improved spatial and temporal resolution, the ability to sample in challenging conditions (e.g., on airborne platforms, in clouds, at widely ranging pressure and temperature conditions), and the ability to measure a wider range of chemical species, and, in the case of aerosol particles, to detect smaller sizes. Remote sensing capabilities have increased in recent years, thus offering new views of atmospheric composition across broad spatiotemporal ranges. Manuscripts related to all aspects of atmospheric observations are included in this Special Issue, including advances in observational techniques and scientific insights into atmospheric composition.
Description Petroleum ""black gold"" is the most important nonrenewable source of energy. It is a complex mixture of different phases and components. Refining it provides a vast number of organic compounds, all of them of which are used to produce petroleum based products for numerous applications, from industry to medicine, from clothing to food industries. We can find petroleum based products all around us. This book deals with some important topics related to petroleum such as its chemical composition and stability. It is well-known that the chemical composition of crude oil differs according to the site of production, and its grade varies from waxy to asphaltenic crude. Both of them are refined to produce different products. The stability of crude oil on aging and transportation is governed by several factors and these factors are included within this book. Some new technologies for petroleum characterization are also introduced. This book is aimed at researchers, chemical engineers and people working within the petroleum industry.
Description Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable genetic elements found in thousands of species of plants and animals, and some fungi. Since their discovery more than a century ago, they have been a source of puzzlement, as they only occur in some members of a population and are absent from others. When they do occur, they are often harmful, and in the absence of “selfishness”, based on mechanisms of mitotic and meiotic drive, there appears to be no obvious reason for their existence. Cytogeneticists have long wrestled with questions about the biological existence of these enigmatic elements, including their lack of any adaptive properties, apparent absence of functional genes, their origin, sequence organization, and co-evolution as nuclear parasites. Emerging new technologies are now enabling researchers to step up a gear, to look enthusiastically beyond the previous limits of the horizon, and to uncover the secrets of these “silent” chromosomes. This book provides a comprehensive guide to theoretical advancements in the field of B chromosome research in both animal and plant systems.
Description Despite its centrality to much of contemporary personal and public discourse, sexuality remains infrequently discussed in composition courses and in our discipline at large. Moreover, its complicated relationship to discourse, to the very language we use to describe and define our worlds, is woefully understudied in our discipline. Talk and writing about sexuality surround us. Not only does the discourse of sexuality surround us, but sexuality itself forms a core set of complex discourses through which we approach, make sense of, and construct a variety of meanings, politics, and identities. In Literacy, Sexuality, Pedagogy, Jonathan Alexander argues for the development of students' ""sexual literacy."" Such a literacy is not concerned with developing fluency with sexuality as a ""hot"" topic, but with understanding the connectedness of sexuality and literacy in Western culture. Using the work of scholars in queer theory, sexuality studies, and the New Literacy Studies, Alexander unpacks what he sees as a crucial--if often overlooked--dimension of literacy: the fundamental ways in which sexuality has become a key component of contemporary literate practice, of the stories we tell about ourselves, our communities, and our political investments. Alexander then demonstrates through a series of composition exercises and writing assignments how we might develop students' understanding of sexual literacy. Examining discourses of gender, heterosexuality, and marriage allows students (and instructors) a critical opportunity to see how the languages we use to describe ourselves and our communities are saturated with ideologies of sexuality. Understanding how sexuality is constructed and deployed as a way to ""make meaning"" in our culture gives us a critical tool both to understand some of the fundamental ways in which we know ourselves and to challenge some of the norms that govern our lives. In the process, we become more fluent with the stories that we tell about ourselves and we discover how normative notions of sexuality enable (and constrain) narrations of identity, culture, and politics. We develop not only our understanding of sexuality, but of our literacy, as we explore how sexuality is a vital, if vexing, part of the story of who we are.
Description This is a study in oral poetic composition. It examines how oral poets compose their recitations. Specifically, it is a study of the recitations of 17 separate master poets from the Island of Rote recorded over a period of 50 years. Each of these poets offers his version of what is culturally considered to be the ‘same’ ritual chant. These compositions are examined in detail and their oral formulae are carefully compared to one another. Professor James J. Fox is an anthropologist who carried out his doctoral field research on the Island of Rote in eastern Indonesia in 1965–66. In 1965, he began recording the oral traditions of the island and developed a close association with numerous oral poets on the island. After many subsequent visits, in 2006, he began a nine-year project that brought groups of oral poets to Bali for week-long recording sessions. Recitations gathered over a period of 50 years are the basis for this book.
Description The LNCS Transactions on Modularity and Composition are devoted to all aspects of software modularity and composition methods, tools, and techniques, covering requirement analysis, design, implementation, maintenance, and evolution. The focus of the journal also includes modelling techniques, new paradigms and languages, development tools, measurement, novel verification and testing approaches, theoretical foundations, and understanding interactions between modularity and composition.
This, the first issue of the Transactions on Modularity and Composition, consists of two sections. The first one, guest edited by Patrick Eugster, Mario Südholt, and Lukasz Ziarek, is entitled “Aspects, Events, and Modularity” and includes papers focusing on context-oriented software development, specifications for even-based systems, and development of modular software. The second section, guest edited by Gary T. Leavens, contains journal versions of selected papers from Modularity 2015, which was held in March 2015, in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Topics covered by the papers in this section include software unbundling, layer activation in context-oriented programming, modular reasoning in event-based languages, and dynamic dispatch for method contracts using abstract predicates.
Description Paysages et paysans merina sont au cœur d'une géographie intimiste des campagnes malgaches. Le paysage de ces hautes terres tropicales s'articule sur deux unités : la colline à fine pellicule de sols (la « chair de la terre ») et le bas-fond organisé autour de l'eau (« l'œil de l'eau »). Collines et bas-fonds sont perçus et interprétés par les paysans qui les valorisent et n'hésitent pas à les remodeler. La mosaïque rurale de l'Imerina est illustrée par les exemples de trois petits pays situés à faible distance de la capitale Tananarive. Leur personnalité résulte de combinaisons entre héritages historiques et permanences écologiques. Leur ruralité s'enrichit également de liaisons avec la grande ville qui suscitent de nouvelles activités. Chaque petit pays s'inscrit dans une dynamique sociale qui s'enracine dans le passé. À partir de ces histoires particulières, la crise des années quatre-vingt a joué un rôle d'accélérateur pour l'invention de solutions locales (eucalyptus, ananas, élevage laitier). La quête quotidienne de numéraire entame la production rizicole, fondement de l'alimentation. Contexte naturel, histoire des lieux et ruralité des sociétés construisent une identité merina que des initiatives paysannes ne cessent de recomposer. Le développement rural ne réussira pas en dehors de ces dynamiques locales, atout et gage d'espoir.
Description Malgré les sécheresses, le surpeuplement rural et la paupérisation, la petite région du Wolaita, au sud de l’Éthiopie, avec ses paysages verdoyants, échappe difficilement à son image d’Éden véhiculée par les voyageurs du XIXe siècle. Ancien grenier de l’empire éthiopien, montagne paysanne aménagée selon un remarquable savoir-faire, le Wolaita connaît pourtant un inexorable déclin. Loin des clichés et grâce à une analyse régionale soucieuse d’intégrer les dynamiques économiques et politiques, l’auteur restitue, sur plus d’un siècle, la lente transformation de ce petit pays. Depuis l’époque du conquérant Ménélik II jusqu’à la période socialiste en passant par le règne du Négus, elle retrace l’histoire du peuple d’agriculteurs-jardiniers du Wolaita, contraint à s’adapter au jeu des politiques successives. Entre l’intégration dans l’Éthiopie moderne et les spécificités régionales, entre l’ouverture économique et les sursauts identitaires, l’auteur montre comment s’élabore la construction territoriale actuelle, jusque dans ses espaces les plus reculés. Dans cette marche vers la modernité, la chute de l’Éden éthiopien ne préfigure-t-elle pas l’avènement d’une Éthiopie nouvelle ? L’ouvrage s’adresse tant aux géographes qu’aux économistes, mais également aux historiens et agronomes, ainsi qu’à tout lecteur concerné par les questions de développement.
Description La disparition des « systèmes » universels, dans la pensée et dans les arts, ainsi que la connaissance de plus en plus approfondie des diverses cultures non européennes, ont provoqué la multiplication des codes relatifs et éphémères, liés à une personnalité ou à un groupe, et sans cesse remis en question. Les compositeurs, au cours du vingtième siècle, n'ont cessé de repenser les relations complexes du matériau et du langage, de la construction et de l'intuition, des systèmes conçus et des sy...
Description By highlighting relations between experimental and theoretical work, this volume explores new ways of addressing one of the central challenges in the study of language and cognition. The articles bring together work by leading scholars and younger researchers in psychology, linguistics and philosophy. An introductory chapter lays out the background on concept composition, a problem that is stimulating much new research in cognitive science. Researchers in this interdisciplinary domain aim to explain how meanings of complex expressions are derived from simple lexical concepts and to show how these meanings connect to concept representations. Traditionally, much of the work on concept composition has been carried out within separate disciplines, where cognitive psychologists have concentrated on concept representations, and linguists and philosophers have focused on the meaning and use of logical operators. This volume demonstrates an important change in this situation, where convergence points between these three disciplines in cognitive science are emerging and are leading to new findings and theoretical insights.
Description Electronic documents frequently include contributions from different human and non-human sources. The Web, for instance, offers ever-changing content and services which can perform activities during document creation. This thesis introduces a solution for collaborative document creation which maps contributions of human and non-human participants to software services. The joint flexible composition and coordination of these services leads to a novel understanding of dynamic Web-based documents.
Description Using Shannon information theory to analyse the contributions from two source variables to a target, for example, we can measure the information held by one source about the target, the information held by the other source about the target, and the information held by those sources together about the target. Intuitively, however, there is strong desire to measure further notions of how this directed information interaction may be decomposed, e.g., how much information the two source variables hold redundantly about the target, how much each source variable holds uniquely, and how much information can only be discerned by synergistically examining the two sources together.
The absence of measures for such decompositions into redundant, unique and synergistic information is arguably the most fundamental missing piece in classical information theory. Triggered by the formulation of the Partial Information Decomposition framework by Williams and Beer in 2010, the past few years have witnessed a concentration of work by the community in proposing, contrasting, and investigating new measures to capture these notions of information decomposition.
This Special Issue seeks to bring together these efforts, to capture a snapshot of the current research, as well as to provide impetus for and focused scrutiny on newer work, present progress to the wider community and attract further research. Our contributions present: several new approaches for measures of such decompotions; commentary on properties, interpretations and limitations of such approaches; and applications to empirical data (in particular to neural data).
Description The study of South Asian music falls under the purview of ethnomusicology, whereas that of South Asian literature falls under South Asian studies. As a consequence of this academic separation, scholars rarely take notice of connections between South Asian song and poetry. Modernizing Composition overcomes this disciplinary fragmentation by examining the history of Sinhala-language song and poetry in twentieth-century Sri Lanka. Garrett Field describes how songwriters and poets modernized song and poetry in response to colonial and postcolonial formations. The story of this modernization is significant in that it shifts focus from India’s relationship to the West to little-studied connections between Sri Lanka and North India.
Description The insulating medium used in gas-insulated switchgear is SF6 gas, which has been widely used in substations. Energy generated by discharge will cause the composition of SF6 and generate characteristic component gases. Diagnosing the insulation defect through analyzing the decomposed gases of SF6 by chemical gas sensors is the optimal method due to its advantages. Carbon nanotubes, TiO2 nanotubes and graphene are chosen as the gas-sensing materials to build specific gas sensors for detecting each kind of SF6 decomposed gases and then enhance the gas sensitivity and selectivity by material modification. The properties and preparation methods are introduced in this book. The author studied the micro-adsorption mechanism and macro-gas sensing properties by theoretical calculation and sensing experiment.
Description Recent advances in biotechnology and the availability of ever more powerful computers have led to the formulation of increasingly complex models at all levels of life sciences, in particular of cardiac electrophysiology. Multiscale modeling of the bioelectric activity of the heart, taking into account macroscopic (fiber architecture and anisotropy) and microscopic (cellular) features of the tissue, aim to develop predictive tools for future drug design and patient-specific therapies, using detailed and efficient three-dimensional solvers for the governing equations of tissue electrophysiology.
Description Géographes et sociologues s’intéressent à la redéfinition du maillage paroissial par les institutions ecclésiastiques afin de proposer, à partir d’antiques territoires, des constructions territoriales adaptées aux nécessités du monde actuel. Ces analyses recoupent les renouvellements en cours de l’historiographie de la paroisse. Si celle-ci est bien une construction médiévale, il semble se confirmer qu’elle a mis plusieurs siècles à prendre forme selon des modalités diverses. Dans cette perspective, le modèle tridentin de territorialisation paroissiale qui s’est imposé à l’époque moderne apparaît plutôt comme une parenthèse entre deux perceptions plus communautaires que territoriales de la paroisse. Archéologues, géographes sociaux, historiens, juristes, sociologues ont entrepris d’inscrire leurs contributions dans une démarche interdisciplinaire. Ils explorent ainsi l’hypothèse selon laquelle les facteurs qui interviennent aujourd’hui dans le démontage de ce système spatial pourraient contribuer à éclairer les conditions de son montage (et réciproquement ?).
Description L’essor de la culture de la quinoa en Bolivie survient dans une société apparemment isolée et ancestrale, enracinée au sud des hauts plateaux andins mais, en réalité, mobile et ouverte sur le monde. Cet ouvrage explore les transformations sociales et territoriales induites par le passage d'une agriculture de subsistance, essentiellement locale, à une production commerciale mondialisée. Mondialisée… mais toujours aux mains des petits producteurs et de leurs organisations. C’est au prisme de la géographie sociale que les permanences et les évolutions sont observées, en s’appuyant sur une connaissance fine des communautés locales. Dépassant les constats hâtifs et parfois alarmistes, cet ouvrage met en lumière les ressources et les capacités adaptives d'une société rurale en mutation. Il nous plonge dans l’intimité des trajectoires de vie de ces producteurs de quinoa, ancrés dans leur communauté et, en même temps, mobiles et mondialisés. Il met en lumière le génie de cette société rurale qui, par la migration, combine les lieux, les activités et les identités, articule villes et campagnes, gère l’ici et l’ailleurs. Cultiver tout en partant, partir tout en cultivant, tel est le tour de force opéré par les producteurs de quinoa. La durabilité agricole, socio-économique et environnementale de ces territoires est au cœur du propos : ne doit-elle pas, en effet, s’envisager dans le mouvement ?
Description 1945 : « année zéro » pour la droite en France ? C'est, encore aujourd'hui, l'idée qui domine bien souvent. Une droite vichyste discréditée, sans chef, sans programme, sans organisation. Mais comment interpréter l'impressionnant succès du tout jeune MRP en 1945-1946 ? Comment qualifier De Gaulle et la percée spectaculaire du RPF en 1947 ? Comment comprendre l'arrivée de Pinay à Matignon en 1952, homme de la droite libérale, élu député en 1936 contre le Front populaire puis membre du Conseil n...
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