Description Ce livre est né de deux rencontres : la première entre les hommes et la nature, quelque part dans les brumes d'un Moyen Âge éminemment religieux ; la seconde, près d'un millénaire plus tard, entre la communauté scientifique et un site fascinant tant par ses ruines majestueuses et son histoire complexe que par les illustres personnages qui l'on choisi comme résidence ou source d'inspiration. L'île de Maillezais a été battue durant sept siècles par les vagues successives de la grande Histoire. ...
Description Eine effiziente und nachhaltige Verkehrsplanung benötigt Vorstellungen, wie die Verkehrsnachfrage in den kommenden Jahrzehnten aussehen wird. Neben der Alterung der Gesellschaft und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklungen sind hier vor allem Kohorteneffekte zu berücksichtigen. Mit Alters- Kohortenmodellen und geeigneten Längsschnittdaten können derartige Effekte analysiert werden. Die Ergebnisse werden hier beispielhaft eingesetzt, um die Verkehrsentstehung in unterschiedlichen Raumtypen vorherzusagen.
Description This book provides a truly comprehensive analysis of the 2013 federal election in Australia, which brought the conservative Abbott government to power, consigned the fractious Labor Party to the Opposition benches and ended the ‘hung parliament’ experiment of 2010–13 in which the Greens and three independents lent their support to form a minority Labor government.
Description Those convicted of homicide were hanged on the public gallows before being dissected under the Murder Act in Georgian England. Yet, from 1752, whether criminals actually died on the hanging tree or in the dissection room remained a medical mystery in early modern society. Dissecting the Criminal Corpse takes issue with the historical cliché of corpses dangling from the hangman’s rope in crime studies. Some convicted murderers did survive execution in early modern England. Establishing medical death in the heart-lungs-brain was a physical enigma. Criminals had large bull-necks, strong willpowers, and hearty survival instincts. Extreme hypothermia often disguised coma in a prisoner hanged in the winter cold. The youngest and fittest were capable of reviving on the dissection table. Many died under the lancet. Capital legislation disguised a complex medical choreography that surgeons staged. They broke the Hippocratic Oath by executing the Dangerous Dead across England from 1752 until 1832.
Description Recent decades have witnessed profound shifts in the politics of medicine and the biological sciences. Members of several professions, including philosophers, lawyers and social scientists, now discuss and help regulate issues that were once left to doctors and scientists, in a form of outside involvement known as ‘bioethics’. The making of British bioethics provides the first in-depth study of the growing demand for this outside involvement in Britain, where bioethicists have become renowned and influential ‘ethics experts’. The book moves beyond existing histories, which often claim that bioethics arose in response to questions surrounding new procedures such as in vitro fertilisation. It shows instead that British bioethics emerged thanks to a dynamic interplay between changing sociopolitical concerns and the aims of specific professional groups and individuals. Highlighting this interplay has important implications for our understanding of how issues such as embryo experiments, animal research and assisted dying became high profile ‘bioethical’ concerns in late twentieth century Britain. And it also helps us appreciate how various individuals and groups intervened in and helped create the demand for bioethics, playing a major role in their transformation into ‘ethics experts’.
The making of British bioethics draws on a wide range of materials, including government archives, popular sources, professional journals, and original interviews with bioethicists and politicians. It is clearly written and will appeal to historians of medicine and science, general historians, bioethicists, and anyone interested in what the emergence of bioethics means for our notions of health, illness and morality.
Description The sequencing of the entire human genome has opened up unprecedented possibilities for healthcare, but also ethical and social dilemmas about how these can be achieved, particularly in developing countries. UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established to address such issues in 1993. Since then, it has adopted three declarations on human genetics and bioethics (1997, 2003 and 2005), set up numerous training programmes around the world and debated the need for an international convention on human reproductive cloning. Negotiating Bioethics presents Langlois' research on the negotiation and implementation of the three declarations and the human cloning debate, based on fieldwork carried out in Kenya, South Africa, France and the UK, among policy-makers, geneticists, ethicists, civil society representatives and industry professionals. The book examines whether the UNESCO Bioethics Programme is an effective forum for (a) decision-making on bioethics issues and (b) ensuring ethical practice. Considering two different aspects of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme - deliberation and implementation - at international and national levels, Langlois explores: - how relations between developed and developing countries can be made more equal - who should be involved in global level decision-making and how this should proceed - how overlap between initiatives can be avoided - what can be done to improve the implementation of international norms by sovereign states - how far universal norms can be contextualized - what impact the efficacy of national level governance has at international level Drawing on extensive empirical research, Negotiating Bioethics presents a truly global perspective on bioethics
Description When the war was over in 1945, Germany was a country with no government, little functioning infrastructure, millions of refugees and homeless people, and huge foreign armies living largely off the land. Large parts of the country were covered in rubble, with no clean drinking water, electricity, or gas. Hospitals overflowed with patients, but were short of beds, medicines, and medical personnel. In these conditions, the potential for epidemics and public health disasters was severe. This is a study of how the four occupiers—Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—attempted to keep their own troops and the ex-enemy population alive. While the war was still being fought, German public health was a secondary consideration for them, an unaffordable and undeserved luxury. But once fighting ceased and the occupation began, it rapidly turned into a urgent priority. Public health was now recognized as an indispensable component of creating order, keeping the population governable, and facilitating the reconstruction of German society. But they faced a number of insoluble problems in the process: Which Germans could be trusted to work with the occupiers, and how were they to be identified? Who could be tolerated because of a lack of alternatives? How, if at all, could former Nazis be reformed and reintegrated into German society? What was the purpose of the occupation anyway? This is the first carefully researched comparison of the four occupation zones which looks at the occupation through the prism of public health, an essential service fundamentally shaped by political and economic criteria, and which in turn was to determine the success or failure of the occupation.
Description In this book, we discuss the changing medical and public profile of fungal infections in the period 1850–2000. We consider four sets of diseases: ringworm and athlete’s foot (dermatophytosis); thrush or candidiasis (infection with Candida albicans); endemic, geographically specific infections in North America (coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and histoplasmosis) and mycotoxins; and aspergillosis (infection with Aspergillus fumigatus). We discuss each disease in relation to developing medical knowledge and practices, and to social changes associated with ‘modernity’. Thus, mass schooling provided ideal conditions for the spread of ringworm of the scalp in children, and the rise of college sports and improvement of personal hygiene led to the spread of athlete’s foot. Antibiotics seemed to open the body to more serious Candida infections, as did new methods to treat cancers and the development of transplantation. Regional fungal infections in North America came to the fore due to the economic development of certain regions, where population movement brought in non-immune groups who were vulnerable to endemic mycoses. Fungal toxins or mycotoxins were discovered as by-products of modern food storage and distribution technologies. Lastly, the rapid development and deployment of new medical technologies, such as intensive care and immunosuppression in the last quarter of the twentieth century, increased the incidence of aspergillosis and other systemic mycoses.
NST: Abkürzungen von Wörten, wie sie vorzüglich in lateinischen Handschriften des Mittelalters vorkommen / Jan M. Hulákovský, Text teilw. lat., teilw. tschech., teilw. dt. Durchsuchbare elektronische Faksimileausgabe als PDF. Digitalisiert im Rahmen des DFG-Projektes Digi20 in Kooperation mit der BSB München. OCR-Bearbeitung durch den Verlag Otto Sagner.
Description The ABCs of Human Survival examines the effect of militant nationalism and the lawlessness of powerful states on the well-being of individuals and local communities―and the essential role of global citizenship within that dynamic. Based on the analysis of world events, Dr. Arthur Clark presents militant nationalism as a pathological pattern of thinking that threatens our security, while emphasizing effective democracy and international law as indispensable frameworks for human protection. Within the contexts of history, sociology, philosophy, and spirituality, The ABCs of Human Survival calls into question the assumptions of consumer culture and offers, as an alternative, strategies to improve overall well-being through the important choices we make as individuals.
Description Éviter le double écueil d’une tradition sclérosée et d’une modernité dépourvue d’âme : Abd el-Kader a pressenti de façon précoce cet enjeu, propre à toute époque mais qui apparaît comme démultiplié de nos jours. Opposer l’une et l’autre ne peut que générer une conscience schizophrénique, à l’origine, notamment, des intégrismes religieux ou laïques que nous connaissons. Pour Abd el-Kader, la tradition spirituelle authentique ne peut être vivifiée qu’en s’actualisant dans l’ici et maintenant, e...
Description Der Krieg um Metz und die Belagerung der Festung im Jahre 1870 gehören zu den eher vernachlässigten Ereignissen des Deutsch-Französischen Krieges. Von den symbolisch hoch aufgeladenen und in der Erinnerung tief verankerten Schauplätzen Sedan oder Versailles verdeckt, wird leicht übersehen, dass die Kapitulation der Festung Metz militärisch von kriegsentscheidender Bedeutung war und das Schicksal Elsass-Lothringens bestimmte. Zugleich sind die Ereignisse um Metz Beispiel dafür, dass Krieg, wie bei Clausewitz nachzulesen, ein sich Einlassen auf Ungewisses, wenig Kalkulierbares bedeutet, denn keineswegs ging alles so glatt, wie die gefilterte Memoirenliteratur späterer Jahre glauben machen wollte, und die Opferzahlen lagen im Vergleich zu allen anderen Kriegsschauplätzen ungeheuer hoch. Ziel der Studie ist es, den Ausnahmezustand des Kriegsalltags mit all seinen Folgen für Soldaten und Zivilisten innerhalb des Festungs- und Garnisonsstandortes zu schildern. Über die Lebens- und Gedankenwelt der Menschen im Banne des Ereignisses hinaus wird nach den davon ausgehenden Wirkungslinien in die Zwischenkriegszeit gefragt - nach Metz als einem Schauplatz und Erinnerungsort nationaler Erziehung.
Description The influence of the cell size of mobile communication networks onto the exposure to electromagnetic fields is investigated in this work. The exposure is assessed by means of a radio network planning. In a novel approach the path loss for the coverage and the path loss for the exposure are distinguished. The developed model is applied to different wave propagation models and cell structures. The results are discussed.
Description Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function.
In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity.
Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.
Description Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.
Description Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality.
This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement.
This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:
- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.
- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity.
- Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.
- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.
- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.
Description In der Anwendung von Z-R-Beziehungen ist eine der Hauptfehlerquellen bei der Ableitung von Niederschlagsintensitäten aus Radardaten zu sehen. Eine Verbesserung der radargestützen Niederschlagsmessung wird durch die Clusterung der Niederschläge in Teilkollektive erreicht. Für die entstandenen Niederschlagsklassen wird anhand neuronaler Netze eine Abbildungsvorschrift zwischen Parametern, die aus dem Vertikalprofil der Reflektivität abgeleitet wurden, und der Niederschlagsrate entwickelt.
Description Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment in road traffic. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio, navigation system and passengers. The environment outside the car becomes also more and more complex. Car drivers’ gaze behaviour while being distracted is studied on the basis of some examples. Furthermore different performance indicators are analysed.
Description O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a observação da influência de A Condição Pós-Moderna sobre as abordagens do pós-moderno em música realizadas após a 1980. Para tal tarefa, será utilizada a noção lyotardiana de pós-moderno como incredulidade nas metanarrativas de legitimação do saber. Esta influência será observada perante importantes textos relativos ao pós-moderno musical e na maneira como algumas obras da música clássica de concerto realizada na década de 1990 e 2000 se relacionam com tal incredulidade.
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