34,330 Results
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Abbreviations
Author: T. Hurren, Elizabeth
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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Those convicted of homicide were hanged on the public gallows before being dissected under the Murder Act in Georgian England. Yet, from 1752, whether criminals actually died on the hanging tree or in the dissection room remained a medical mystery in early modern society. Dissecting the Criminal Corpse takes issue with the historical cliché of corpses dangling from the hangman’s rope in crime studies. Some convicted murderers did survive execution in early modern England. Establishing medical death in the heart-lungs-brain was a physical enigma. Criminals had large bull-necks, strong willpowers, and hearty survival instincts. Extreme hypothermia often disguised coma in a prisoner hanged in the winter cold. The youngest and fittest were capable of reviving on the dissection table. Many died under the lancet. Capital legislation disguised a complex medical choreography that surgeons staged. They broke the Hippocratic Oath by executing the Dangerous Dead across England from 1752 until 1832.
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Abbreviations
Author: Wilson, Duncan
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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Recent decades have witnessed profound shifts in the politics of medicine and the biological sciences. Members of several professions, including philosophers, lawyers and social scientists, now discuss and help regulate issues that were once left to doctors and scientists, in a form of outside involvement known as ‘bioethics’. The making of British bioethics provides the first in-depth study of the growing demand for this outside involvement in Britain, where bioethicists have become renowned and influential ‘ethics experts’. The book moves beyond existing histories, which often claim that bioethics arose in response to questions surrounding new procedures such as in vitro fertilisation. It shows instead that British bioethics emerged thanks to a dynamic interplay between changing sociopolitical concerns and the aims of specific professional groups and individuals. Highlighting this interplay has important implications for our understanding of how issues such as embryo experiments, animal research and assisted dying became high profile ‘bioethical’ concerns in late twentieth century Britain. And it also helps us appreciate how various individuals and groups intervened in and helped create the demand for bioethics, playing a major role in their transformation into ‘ethics experts’. The making of British bioethics draws on a wide range of materials, including government archives, popular sources, professional journals, and original interviews with bioethicists and politicians. It is clearly written and will appeal to historians of medicine and science, general historians, bioethicists, and anyone interested in what the emergence of bioethics means for our notions of health, illness and morality.
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Abbreviations
Author: Langlois, Adèle
Publisher: Routledge
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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The sequencing of the entire human genome has opened up unprecedented possibilities for healthcare, but also ethical and social dilemmas about how these can be achieved, particularly in developing countries. UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established to address such issues in 1993. Since then, it has adopted three declarations on human genetics and bioethics (1997, 2003 and 2005), set up numerous training programmes around the world and debated the need for an international convention on human reproductive cloning. Negotiating Bioethics presents Langlois' research on the negotiation and implementation of the three declarations and the human cloning debate, based on fieldwork carried out in Kenya, South Africa, France and the UK, among policy-makers, geneticists, ethicists, civil society representatives and industry professionals. The book examines whether the UNESCO Bioethics Programme is an effective forum for (a) decision-making on bioethics issues and (b) ensuring ethical practice. Considering two different aspects of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme - deliberation and implementation - at international and national levels, Langlois explores: - how relations between developed and developing countries can be made more equal - who should be involved in global level decision-making and how this should proceed - how overlap between initiatives can be avoided - what can be done to improve the implementation of international norms by sovereign states - how far universal norms can be contextualized - what impact the efficacy of national level governance has at international level Drawing on extensive empirical research, Negotiating Bioethics presents a truly global perspective on bioethics
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The ABC's of Human Survival: A Paradigm for Global Citizenship
Author: Arthur Clark
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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The ABCs of Human Survival examines the effect of militant nationalism and the lawlessness of powerful states on the well-being of individuals and local communities―and the essential role of global citizenship within that dynamic. Based on the analysis of world events, Dr. Arthur Clark presents militant nationalism as a pathological pattern of thinking that threatens our security, while emphasizing effective democracy and international law as indispensable frameworks for human protection. Within the contexts of history, sociology, philosophy, and spirituality, The ABCs of Human Survival calls into question the assumptions of consumer culture and offers, as an alternative, strategies to improve overall well-being through the important choices we make as individuals.
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Abd el-Kader, un spirituel dans la modernité
Author: Ahmed Bouyerdene, Éric Geoffroy, Setty G. Simon-Khedis (dir.)
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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Éviter le double écueil d’une tradition sclérosée et d’une modernité dépourvue d’âme : Abd el-Kader a pressenti de façon précoce cet enjeu, propre à toute époque mais qui apparaît comme démultiplié de nos jours. Opposer l’une et l’autre ne peut que générer une conscience schizophrénique, à l’origine, notamment, des intégrismes religieux ou laïques que nous connaissons. Pour Abd el-Kader, la tradition spirituelle authentique ne peut être vivifiée qu’en s’actualisant dans l’ici et maintenant, e...
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Abgrund Metz. Kriegserfahrung, Belagerungsalltag und nationale Erziehung im Schatten einer Festung 1870/71
Author: Steinbach, Matthias
Publisher: De Gruyter
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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Der Krieg um Metz und die Belagerung der Festung im Jahre 1870 gehören zu den eher vernachlässigten Ereignissen des Deutsch-Französischen Krieges. Von den symbolisch hoch aufgeladenen und in der Erinnerung tief verankerten Schauplätzen Sedan oder Versailles verdeckt, wird leicht übersehen, dass die Kapitulation der Festung Metz militärisch von kriegsentscheidender Bedeutung war und das Schicksal Elsass-Lothringens bestimmte. Zugleich sind die Ereignisse um Metz Beispiel dafür, dass Krieg, wie bei Clausewitz nachzulesen, ein sich Einlassen auf Ungewisses, wenig Kalkulierbares bedeutet, denn keineswegs ging alles so glatt, wie die gefilterte Memoirenliteratur späterer Jahre glauben machen wollte, und die Opferzahlen lagen im Vergleich zu allen anderen Kriegsschauplätzen ungeheuer hoch. Ziel der Studie ist es, den Ausnahmezustand des Kriegsalltags mit all seinen Folgen für Soldaten und Zivilisten innerhalb des Festungs- und Garnisonsstandortes zu schildern. Über die Lebens- und Gedankenwelt der Menschen im Banne des Ereignisses hinaus wird nach den davon ausgehenden Wirkungslinien in die Zwischenkriegszeit gefragt - nach Metz als einem Schauplatz und Erinnerungsort nationaler Erziehung.
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Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomic Intervention
Author: Girdhar K. Pandey
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
Description:
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Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.
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Abiotic Stress: Molecular Genetics and Genomics
Author: Mukesh Jain
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
Description:
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Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.
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Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology
Author: Urs Feller
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
Description:
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them: - Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield. - Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows. - Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes. - Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.
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Abordagens do pós-moderno em música: a incredulidade nas metanarrativas e o saber musical contemporâneo
Author: Nascimento, João Paulo Costa do
Publisher: SciELO Books - Editora UNESP
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
Description:
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O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a observação da influência de A Condição Pós-Moderna sobre as abordagens do pós-moderno em música realizadas após a 1980. Para tal tarefa, será utilizada a noção lyotardiana de pós-moderno como incredulidade nas metanarrativas de legitimação do saber. Esta influência será observada perante importantes textos relativos ao pós-moderno musical e na maneira como algumas obras da música clássica de concerto realizada na década de 1990 e 2000 se relacionam com tal incredulidade.
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Aboriginal Placenames
Author: Hercus, Luise
Publisher: ANU Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: ANU Press
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Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases, the use of an introduced name, such as Gove, has been contested by local Indigenous people. The 19 studies brought together in this book present an overview of current issues involving Indigenous placenames across the whole of Australia, drawing on the disciplines of geography, linguistics, history, and anthropology. They include meticulous studies of historical records, and perspectives stemming from contemporary Indigenous communities. The book includes a wealth of documentary information on some 400 specific placenames, including those of Sydney Harbour, the Blue Mountains, Canberra, western Victoria, the Lake Eyre district, the Victoria River District, and southwestern Cape York Peninsula.
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Aboriginal Population Profiles for Development Planning in the Northern East Kimberley
Author: Taylor, John
Publisher: ANU Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: ANU Press
Description:
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Aboriginal australians; Western australia; Kimberly; Population; Economic conditions; Social conditions
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About the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter
Author: Odile Tresse
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
Description:
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A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases has been observed over the past years. Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide with a significant impact on human health and an associated economic burdens. Campylobacteriosis human cases have been generally correlated with the handling, preparation and consumption of poultry. In 2017, the European Commission regulation has amended Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on the hygiene of foodstuffs as regards Campylobacter on broiler carcasses stating a limit of 1000 cfu/g. Campylobacter is also present in other farm animals and is frequently found on a range of foodstuffs due to cross contamination. Among the pathogenic species, C. jejuni is the most prevalent species followed by C. coli. Current guidelines highlight the importance of biosecurity but these measures are failing to mitigate the risk of pathogenic Campylobacter. As an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter does not multiply under atmospheric oxygen concentration at ambient temperatures. It therefore constitutes a puzzle as to how it can survive from farm to retail outlets. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistence, survival and pathogenesis appear to be unique to this pathogen. Recent research has indicated how genomic polymorphism, restricted catabolic capacity, self regulation or deregulation of genes, bacterial cooperation and unknown contamination routes may be connected to this specificity.This book includes original studies on both C. jejuni and C. coli species dealing with epidemiology and animal carriage, host interaction, control strategies, metabolism and regulation specificities of these two pathogenic species, methodology to improve cultural techniques and chicken gut microbiota challenged with Campylobacter.
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Abrégé du Livre des Pays
Author: Ibn al-Faqīh al-Hamaḏānī
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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Écrit au Xe siècle par le géographe persan Ibn al-Faqīh al-Hamaḏānī, l’Abrégé du Livre des Pays constitue un témoignage vivant de la vision du monde que pouvaient avoir les habitants du Dâr al-Islâm à cette époque. « Au dire de ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Amr b. al-‘Ās b. Wā’il aṣ-Sahmī, la figure du monde d’ici-bas se divise en cinq : c’est comme la tête de l’oiseau, les deux ailes, la poitrine, la queue. La tête du monde c’est la Chine ; au delà de la Chine est un peuple appelé Wāq-wāq, et, au delà du...
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Der Abschreckungseffekt auf die Grundrechtsausübung
Author: Staben, Julian
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
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Julian Staben examines chilling effects, framed as deterrence-based lines of argument, in the jurisprudence of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (German Federal Constitutional Court) and compares them with the jurisprudence of the US Supreme Court. Chilling effects follow distinct patterns when it comes to online behaviour and emerging digital practices and therefore call for their constitutional reassessment. Julian Staben's work enables a more methodologically reflective use of these arguments in the judicial discourse.
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Absolute Komplexität in der Nominalflexion
Author: Baechler, Raffaela
Publisher: Language Science Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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This book provides a quantifiable measure and analysis of absolute complexity in the nominal inflection of 17 Alemannic dialects, of standard German as well as of Middle and Old High German. The data is based on grammatical descriptions. What can be interpreted as being more or less complex in a language system is deduced from LFG (Lexical-Functional Grammar) and from an inferential-realisational morphological framework. The tool to measure inflectional complexity is also developed from these frameworks. Variation in the inflectional complexity is analysed based on the following factors: diachrony, isolation, language contact, standardisation, and dialect groups.
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Absolutismus, ein unersetzliches Forschungskonzept? L'absolutisme, un concept irremplaçable? Eine deutsch-französische Bilanz. Une mise au point franco-allemande
Author: Schilling, Lothar
Publisher: De Gruyter
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
Description:
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Die Frühe Neuzeit kannte eine Vielzahl von Diskursen, Performanzen und Repräsentationen, die auf eine Überhöhung des Monarchen abzielten, ohne sich jedoch zu einer kohärenten Gesamtheit zusammenzufügen. Ist das umfassende Forschungskonzept "Absolutismus" diesem heterogenen Befund angemessen? Die Beiträge gehen dieser Frage im Wesentlichen anhand von französischen Beispielen nach. Sie sehen Absolutismus dabei im Sinne neuerer kulturhistorischer Ansätze nicht als "objektive" Gegebenheit oder real existierende gesellschaftliche Struktur, sondern als frühneuzeitliche Konstruktion, als sozial und kulturell konstruierte Vorstellungswelt, in der Einflussmöglichkeiten und Herrschaftsansprüche zu allererst symbolisch repräsentiert wurden.
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Abstract Mathematical Cognition
Author: Philippe Chassy
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Despite the importance of mathematics in our educational systems little is known about how abstract mathematical thinking emerges. Under the uniting thread of mathematical development, we hope to connect researchers from various backgrounds to provide an integrated view of abstract mathematical cognition. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years on how numeracy is acquired. Experimental psychology has brought to light the fact that numerical cognition stems from spatial cognition. The findings from neuroimaging and single cell recording experiments converge to show that numerical representations take place in the intraparietal sulcus. Further research has demonstrated that supplementary neural networks might be recruited to carry out subtasks; for example, the retrieval of arithmetic facts is done by the angular gyrus. Now that the neural networks in charge of basic mathematical cognition are identified, we can move onto the stage where we seek to understand how these basics skills are used to support the acquisition and use of abstract mathematical concepts.
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