2,460 Results
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Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomic Intervention
Author: Girdhar K. Pandey
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.
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Abiotic Stress: Molecular Genetics and Genomics
Author: Mukesh Jain
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.
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Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology
Author: Urs Feller
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them: - Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield. - Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows. - Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes. - Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.
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About the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter
Author: Odile Tresse
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases has been observed over the past years. Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide with a significant impact on human health and an associated economic burdens. Campylobacteriosis human cases have been generally correlated with the handling, preparation and consumption of poultry. In 2017, the European Commission regulation has amended Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on the hygiene of foodstuffs as regards Campylobacter on broiler carcasses stating a limit of 1000 cfu/g. Campylobacter is also present in other farm animals and is frequently found on a range of foodstuffs due to cross contamination. Among the pathogenic species, C. jejuni is the most prevalent species followed by C. coli. Current guidelines highlight the importance of biosecurity but these measures are failing to mitigate the risk of pathogenic Campylobacter. As an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter does not multiply under atmospheric oxygen concentration at ambient temperatures. It therefore constitutes a puzzle as to how it can survive from farm to retail outlets. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistence, survival and pathogenesis appear to be unique to this pathogen. Recent research has indicated how genomic polymorphism, restricted catabolic capacity, self regulation or deregulation of genes, bacterial cooperation and unknown contamination routes may be connected to this specificity.This book includes original studies on both C. jejuni and C. coli species dealing with epidemiology and animal carriage, host interaction, control strategies, metabolism and regulation specificities of these two pathogenic species, methodology to improve cultural techniques and chicken gut microbiota challenged with Campylobacter.
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Absolute Komplexität in der Nominalflexion
Author: Baechler, Raffaela
Publisher: Language Science Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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This book provides a quantifiable measure and analysis of absolute complexity in the nominal inflection of 17 Alemannic dialects, of standard German as well as of Middle and Old High German. The data is based on grammatical descriptions. What can be interpreted as being more or less complex in a language system is deduced from LFG (Lexical-Functional Grammar) and from an inferential-realisational morphological framework. The tool to measure inflectional complexity is also developed from these frameworks. Variation in the inflectional complexity is analysed based on the following factors: diachrony, isolation, language contact, standardisation, and dialect groups.
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Abstract Mathematical Cognition
Author: Philippe Chassy
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Despite the importance of mathematics in our educational systems little is known about how abstract mathematical thinking emerges. Under the uniting thread of mathematical development, we hope to connect researchers from various backgrounds to provide an integrated view of abstract mathematical cognition. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years on how numeracy is acquired. Experimental psychology has brought to light the fact that numerical cognition stems from spatial cognition. The findings from neuroimaging and single cell recording experiments converge to show that numerical representations take place in the intraparietal sulcus. Further research has demonstrated that supplementary neural networks might be recruited to carry out subtasks; for example, the retrieval of arithmetic facts is done by the angular gyrus. Now that the neural networks in charge of basic mathematical cognition are identified, we can move onto the stage where we seek to understand how these basics skills are used to support the acquisition and use of abstract mathematical concepts.
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The Academic Book of the Future
Author: Lyons, Rebecca E
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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This book is open access under a CC-BY licence. What makes a book 'academic'? What spaces, physical and digital, can they be found in? How are they made, bought, and read? These questions are tackled by a cross-section of thirteen experts from the fields of bookselling, publishing, university libraries, and academic research in this volume of essays, which was produced in conjunction with the team from the AHRC/British Library Academic Book of the Future Project as an accelerated publishing challenge for the first ever Academic Book Week. The topics include campus bookshops and bookselling, the role of national libraries, Open Access, the Research Excellence Framework, and publishing innovation. The approaches explore the realities of the present and venture all the way through to possible futures. There is something here for everyone who is connected to academic books – however these are defined, and whatever shape they are read in.
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Access to Online Resources: A Guide for the Modern Librarian
Author: Kristina Botyriute
Publisher: Springer
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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The book offers a concise guide for librarians, helping them understand the challenges, processes and technologies involved in managing access to online resources. After an introduction the book presents cases of general authentication and authorisation. It helps readers understand web based authentication and provides the fundamentals of IP address recognition in an easy to understand manner. A special chapter is dedicated to Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), followed by an overview of the key concepts of OpenID Connect. The book concludes with basic troubleshooting guidelines and recommendations for further assistance. Librarians will benefit from this quick and easy read, which demystifies the technologies used, features real-life scenarios, and explains how to competently employ authentication and access management.
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Accessing Conceptual Representations for Speaking
Author: Peter Indefrey
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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For speaking, words in the lexicon are somehow activated from conceptual representations but we know surprisingly little about how this works precisely. Which of the attributes of the concept DOG (e.g. BARKS, IS WALKED WITH A LEASH, CARNIVORE, ANIMATE) have to be activated in a given situation to be able to select the word ‘dog’? Are there things we know about dogs that are always activated for naming and others that are only activated in certain contexts or even never? To date, investigations on lexical access in speaking have largely focused on the effects of distractor nouns on the naming latency of a target noun. We have learned that distractors from the same semantic category (e.g. ‘cat’) hinder naming, but associatively related distractors (‘leash’) may facilitate or hinder naming. However, associatively related words can have all kinds of semantic relationships to a target word, and, with few exceptions, the effects of specific semantic relationships other than membership in the same category as the target concept have not been systematically investigated. This special issue aims at moving forward towards a more detailed account of how precisely conceptual information is used to access the lexicon in speaking and what corresponding format of conceptual representations needs to be assumed.
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Acidentes industriais ampliados : desafios e perspectivas para o controle e a prevenção
Author: Carlos Machado de Freitas
Publisher: SciELO Books - Editora FIOCRUZ
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
Description:
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Contempla: aspectos teóricos e metodólogicos referentes às causas de acidentes industriais ampliados numa abordagem interdisciplinar; cenários em que estes se dão e mudanças possíveis a partir de sua ocorrência, tendo como referência casos de eventos passados e situações críticas presentes; planejamento de emergências e critérios para a gestão de desastres; estratégias institucionais de controle e prevenção. A obra se espraia pela multiplicidade de olhares de vinte especialistas, brasileiros e estrangeiros, de várias instituições e formações, que, em 13 capítulos, garantem ao leitor um panorama abrangente e atual sobre tema tão pouco explorado, mas tão importante para a preservação da vida.
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ACTH Action in the Adrenal Cortex: From Molecular Biology to Pathophysiology
Author: Nicole Gallo-Payet
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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By stimulating adrenal gland and corticosteroid synthesis, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plays a central role in response to stress. In this Research Topic, a particular attention has been given to the recent developments on adrenocortical zonation; the growth-promoting activities of ACTH; the various steps involved in acute and chronic regulation of steroid secretion by ACTH, including the effect of ACTH on circadian rhythms of glucocorticoid secretion. The Research Topic also reviews progress and challenges surrounding the properties of ACTH binding to the MC2 receptor (MC2R), including the importance of melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) in MC2R expression and function, the various intracellular signaling cascades, which involve not only protein kinase A, the key mediator of ACTH action, but also phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, ion channels and the cytoskeleton. The importance of the proteins involved in the cell detoxification is also considered, in particular the effect that ACTH has on protection against reactive oxygen species generated during steroidogenesis. The impact of the cellular microenvironment, including local production of ACTH is discussed, both as an important factor in the maintenance of homeostasis, but also in pathological situations, such as severe inflammation. Finally, the Research Topic reviews the role that the pituitary-adrenal axis may have in the development of metabolic disorders. In addition to mutations or alterations of expression of genes encoding components of the steroidogenesis and signaling pathways, chronic stress and sleep disturbance are both associated with hyperactivity of the adrenal gland. A resulting effect is increased glucocorticoid secretion inducing food intake and weight gain, which, in turn, leads to insulin and leptin resistance. These aspects are described in detail in this Research Topic by key investigators in the field. Many of the aspects addressed in this Research Topic still represent a stimulus for future studies, their outcome aimed at providing evidence of the central position occupied by the adrenal cortex in many metabolic functions when its homeostasis is disrupted. An in-depth investigation of the mechanisms underlying these pathways will be invaluable in developing new therapeutic tools and strategies.
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Actinobacteria in Special and Extreme Habitats: Diversity; Function Roles and Environmental Adaptations
Author: Sheng Qin
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Actinobacteria are highly diverse prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although various studies have focused on the ecology of this phylum, data are still scant on the diversity, abundance and ecology of actinobacteria endemic to special and extreme environments, such as gut, plant, alkaline saline soil, deep sea sediments, hot springs and other habitats. Actinobacteria are well-known producers of a vast array of secondary metabolites, many of which have useful applications in medicine and agriculture. Furthermore, actinobacteria also have diverse functions in different environments apart from antibiotic production. For example, actinobacteria are reported to contribute to the break-down and recycling of organic compounds. They play a significant role in fixation of nitrogen, improvement plant growth, biodegradation, bioremediation and environmental protection. Therefore, understanding the actinobacterial diversity and distribution in such special environments is important in deciphering the ecological roles of these microorganisms and for biotechnological bioprospecting. Recent advances in cultivation, DNA sequencing technologies and -omics (metagenomics, metaproteomics etc) methods have greatly contributed to the rapid advancement of our understanding of microbial diversity, function and they interactions with environment. Furthermore, comparative genomic studies can provide overall information about actinobacterial speciation, evolution, metabolism and environment adaptation mechanisms. This research topic comprising reviews and original articles highlights the recent advances regarding the unexpectedly diverse/rare group of actinobacteria with special selective isolation methods or culture-independent methods, as well as their biological activities, ecophysiologica function and mechanisms from diverse special and extreme environments.
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Active Touch Sensing
Author: Robyn Grant
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Active touch can be described as the control of the position and movement of tactile sensing systems to facilitate information gain. In other words, it is finding out about the world by reaching out and exploring - sensing by ‘touching’ as opposed to ‘being touched’. In this Research Topic (with cross-posting in both Behavioural Neuroscience and Neurorobotics) we welcomed articles from junior researchers on any aspect of active touch. We were especially interested in articles on the behavioral, physiological and neuronal underpinnings of active touch in a range of species (including humans) for submission to Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience. We also welcomed articles describing robotic systems with biomimetic or bio-inspired tactile sensing systems for publication in Frontiers in Neurorobotics.
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Actors and the Art of Performance
Author: Granzer, Susanne Valerie
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Acting on stage is a mode of performing an action, in the context of which the bodily aspects implicitly at work in acting reveal their own significance and power. This event can actualize a wound incarnated in human beings, because the actor acts and does not act at the same time and hence the concept of being ‘the doer’ unmasks itself as being illusionary. One could call it a kind of ‘symbolic death’ (Mueller), an ‘anthropological mutation’ (Agamben)––an event of great interest because of its highly ethical call.The book “Actors and the Art of Performance. Under Exposure” opens with a cascade of contradictory motives for becoming an actor. But, if theatre is no longer understood as a theatre of representation, then what takes place on stage is a transformation at play with truth, in which ethics are realized by the aesthetic. Insofar the book summarizes the attempt to explore and map guidelines of acting as being under the perspective of be-coming. That may sound fairly harmless in theory, but it feels anything but harmless when you experience it on your own body. For example, for being physical under exposure actors have to learn that there exists no fundamental dualism between mind and matter. Furthermore, actors are espoused to a dynamic shifting ground in the name of creativity. They have to carry the burden that the self is no sovereign identity as we generally suppose, but rather a threshold of permanent be-coming. One could call it the outstanding gift of acting. In the German language, gift means “poison”, in German ears the word has the double meaning of poison and present, thus expressing the fact that a gift is disturbing and blessing at the same time. Loaded with fear and joy as the crucial point of acting, which attacks and attracts actors and spectators most.
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Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution
Author: Agustin Gonzalez
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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The brain of each animal shows specific traits that reflect its phylogenetic history and its particular lifestyle. Therefore, comparing brains is not just a mere intellectual exercise, but it helps understanding how the brain allows adaptive behavioural strategies to face an ever-changing world and how this complex organ has evolved during phylogeny, giving rise to complex mental processes in humans and other animals. These questions attracted scientists since the times of Santiago Ramon y Cajal one of the founders of comparative neurobiology. In the last decade, this discipline has undergone a true revolution due to the analysis of expression patterns of morphogenetic genes in embryos of different animals. The papers of this e-book are good examples of modern comparative neurobiology, which mainly focuses on the following four Grand Questions: a) How are different brains built during ontogeny? b) What is the anatomical organization of mature brains and how can they be compared? c) How do brains work to accomplish their function of ensuring survival and, ultimately, reproductive success? d) How have brains evolved during phylogeny? The title of this e-book, Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution, stresses the importance of comparative studies to understand brain function and, the reverse, of considering brain function to properly understand brain evolution. These issues should be taken into account when using animals in the research of mental function and dysfunction, and are fundamental to understand the origins of the human mind.
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Adaptive Hot Cognition: How Emotion Drives Information Processing and Cognition Steers Affective Processing
Author: Mariska E. Kret
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Influential theories have argued that affective processing is fundamentally different from cognitive processing. Others have suggested that theoretical boundaries between affective and cognitive processing are artificial and inherently problematic. Over recent years, different positions on these issues have fueled many empirical studies investigating the mechanisms underlying cognitive and affective processing. Where and on what basis should we draw the line between cognition and emotion? Are there fundamental distinctions to be made between the way emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion? How does the reciprocal interaction between emotion and cognition lead to adaptive behavior? This Research Topic explores the nature of the reciprocal interaction between emotion and cognition from a functional perspective.
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Adaptive Reuse
Author: Freschi, Elisa
Publisher: Harrassowitz Verlag
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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The present volume explores a specific aspect of creativity in South Asian systems of knowledge, literature and rituals. Under the heading of “adaptive reuse,” it discusses the relationship between innovation and perpetuation of earlier forms and contents of knowledge and aesthetic expressions within the process of creating new works. Although this relation rarely became the topic of explicit reflections in the South Asian intellectual traditions, it is here investigated by taking a closer look at the treatment of older materials by later authors.
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L'adattamento delle città ai cambiamenti climatici
Author: Carlo Gerundo
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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Cities and all the activities carried out in an urban environment significantly influence climate change causes but, at the same time, they are greatly affected by them. For these reasons, urban areas not only represent one of the problems, but also the main field of application of intervention strategies to be developed in order to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. Among the strategies to contrast climate change, the adaptation to its environmental effects has been pushed right into the background in scientific debate, mainly due to the difficulty experienced in transferring urban climatology into methods that can be easily implemented by planners to draw up land use plan. This volume is an attempt to strengthen the cultural background of urban planner, establishing solid connections with urban climatology, in order to build a new language, able to consider the relationships between urban morphology and climate change adaptation strategies to be implemented.
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Adjective attribution
Author: Rießler, Michael
Publisher: Language Science Press
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
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"This book is the first typological study of adjective attribution marking. Its focus lies on Northern Eurasia, although it covers many more languages and presents an ontology of morphosyntactic categories relevant to noun phrase structure in general. Beside treating synchronic data, the study contributes to historical linguistics by reconstructing the origin of new types specifically in the language contact area between the Indo-European and Uralic families."
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A adoção em relações homoafetivas
Author: Baranoski, Maria Cristina Rauch
Publisher: SciELO Books - Editora UEPG
Source: Directory of Open Access Books
Type: Open Access Book
License: Attribution
Description:
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O livro apresenta uma abordagem instigante sobre o ponto que mais gera controvérsias: a adoção de crianças e adolescentes por casais do mesmo sexo. A autora atenta muito mais ao direito assegurado constitucionalmente à convivência familiar de todos, quer dos que não vivem com a família biológica, quer dos que vivem uniões homoafetivas.
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