31,152 Results
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Functions of Emotions
Author: Hyisung Hwang and David Matsumoto
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Emotions play a crucial role in our lives because they have important functions. This module describes those functions, dividing the discussion into three areas: the intrapersonal, the interpersonal, and the social and cultural functions of e…
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Knowledge Emotions: Feelings that Foster Learning, Exploring, and Reflecting
Author: Paul Silvia
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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When people think of emotions they usually think of the obvious ones, such as happiness, fear, anger, and sadness. This module looks at the knowledge emotions, a family of emotional states that foster learning, exploring, and reflecting. Surp…
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Motives and Goals
Author: Ayelet Fishbach and Maferima Touré-Tillery
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Your decisions and behaviors are often the result of a goal or motive you possess. This module provides an overview of the main theories and findings on goals and motivation. We address the origins, manifestations, and types of goals, and the…
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Emotion Experience and Well-Being
Author: Brett Ford and Iris B. Mauss
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Emotions don’t just feel good or bad, they also contribute crucially to people’s well-being and health. In general, experiencing positive emotions is good for us, whereas experiencing negative emotions is bad for us. However, recent research …
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Self-Efficacy
Author: James E Maddux and Evan Kleiman
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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The term “self-efficacy” refers to your beliefs about your ability to effectively perform the tasks needed to attain a valued goal. Self-efficacy does not refer to your abilities but to how strongly you believe you can use your abilities to w…
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Conditioning and Learning
Author: Mark E. Bouton
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Basic principles of learning are always operating and always influencing human behavior. This module discusses the two most fundamental forms of learning -- classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning. Through them, we …
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Factors Influencing Learning
Author: Aaron Benjamin
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Learning is a complex process that defies easy definition and description. This module reviews some of the philosophical issues involved with defining learning and describes in some detail the characteristics of learners and of encoding activ…
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Forgetting and Amnesia
Author: Nicole Dudukovic and Brice Kuhl
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module explores the causes of everyday forgetting and considers pathological forgetting in the context of amnesia. Forgetting is viewed as an adaptive process that allows us to be efficient in terms of the information we retain.
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Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
Author: Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger III
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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“Memory” is a single term that reflects a number of different abilities: holding information briefly while working with it (working memory), remembering episodes of one’s life (episodic memory), and our general knowledge of facts of the world…
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Creativity
Author: Dean Keith Simonton
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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An idea or solution is considered creative if it is original, useful, and surprising. However, depending on who actually judges these three criteria, we must distinguish personal “little-c creativity” from consensual “Big-C Creativity.” In an…
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Gender
Author: Christia Spears Brown and Jennifer A. Jewell
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module discusses gender and its related concepts, including sex, gender roles, gender identity, sexual orientation, and sexism. In addition, this module includes a discussion of differences that exist between males and females and how th…
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Personality Assessment
Author: David Watson
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module provides a basic overview to the assessment of personality. It discusses objective personality tests (based on both self-report and informant ratings), projective and implicit tests, and behavioral/performance measures. It describ…
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Personality Stability and Change
Author: M. Brent Donnellan
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module describes different ways to address questions about personality stability across the lifespan. Definitions of the major types of personality stability are provided, and evidence concerning the different kinds of stability and chan…
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Personality Traits
Author: Edward Diener and Richard E. Lucas
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Personality traits reflect people’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Personality traits imply consistency and stability—someone who scores high on a specific trait like Extraversion is expected to be sociabl…
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The Psychodynamic Perspective
Author: Robert Bornstein
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Originating in the work of Sigmund Freud, the psychodynamic perspective emphasizes unconscious psychological processes (for example, wishes and fears of which we’re not fully aware), and contends that childhood experiences are crucial in shap…
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Self and Identity
Author: Dan P. McAdams
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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For human beings, the self is what happens when “I” encounters “Me.” The central psychological question of selfhood, then, is this: How does a person apprehend and understand who he or she is? Over the past 100 years, psychologists have appr…
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Self-Regulation and Conscientiousness
Author: Roy F. Baumeister
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Self-regulation means changing oneself based on standards, that is, ideas of how one should or should not be. It is a centrally important capacity that contributes to socially desirable behavior, including moral behavior. Effective self-regul…
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Intellectual Abilities, Interests, and Mastery
Author: David Lubinski
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Psychologists interested in the study of human individuality have found that accomplishments in education, the world of work, and creativity are a joint function of talent, passion, and commitment — or how much effort and time one is wi…
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Self-Efficacy
Author: James E Maddux and Evan Kleiman
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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The term “self-efficacy” refers to your beliefs about your ability to effectively perform the tasks needed to attain a valued goal. Self-efficacy does not refer to your abilities but to how strongly you believe you can use your abilities to w…
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ADHD and Behavior Disorders in Children
Author: Richard Milich and Walter Roberts
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that is most often diagnosed in school-aged children. Many children with ADHD find it difficult to focus on tasks and follow instructions, and these characteristics can…
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