31,152 Results
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Categories and Concepts
Author: Gregory Murphy
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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People form mental concepts of categories of objects, which permit them to respond appropriately to new objects they encounter. Most concepts cannot be strictly defined but are organized around the “best” examples or prototypes, which have th…
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Consciousness
Author: Ken Paller and Satoru Suzuki
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Consciousness is the ultimate mystery. What is it and why do we have it? These questions are difficult to answer, even though consciousness is so fundamental to our existence. Perhaps the natural world could exist largely as it is without hum…
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Language and Language Use
Author: Yoshihisa Kashima
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Humans have the capacity to use complex language, far more than any other species on Earth. We cooperate with each other to use language for communication; language is often used to communicate about and even construct and maintain our social…
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Theory of Mind
Author: Bertram Malle
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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One of the most remarkable human capacities is to perceive and understand mental states. This capacity, often labeled “theory of mind,” consists of an array of psychological processes that play essential roles in human social life. We review …
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The Unconscious
Author: Ap Dijksterhuis
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Unconscious psychological processes have fascinated people for a very long time. The idea that people must have an unconscious is based on the idea that (a) there is so much going on in our brains, and the capacity of consciousness is so smal…
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Intelligence
Author: Robert Biswas-Diener
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Intelligence is among the oldest and longest studied topics in all of psychology. The development of assessments to measure this concept is at the core of the development of psychological science itself. This module introduces key historical …
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Judgment and Decision Making
Author: Max H. Bazerman
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Humans are not perfect decision makers. Not only are we not perfect, but we depart from perfection or rationality in systematic and predictable ways. The understanding of these systematic and predictable departures is core to the field of jud…
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States of Consciousness
Author: Robert Biswas-Diener and Jake Teeny
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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No matter what you’re doing--solving homework, playing a video game, simply picking out a shirt--all of your actions and decisions relate to your consciousness. But as frequently as we use it, have you ever stopped to ask yourself: What reall…
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Aging
Author: Tara Queen and Jacqui Smith
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Traditionally, research on aging described only the lives of people over age 65 and the very old. Contemporary theories and research recognizes that biogenetic and psychological processes of aging are complex and lifelong. Functioning in each…
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Attachment Through the Life Course
Author: R. Chris Fraley
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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The purpose of this module is to provide a brief review of attachment theory—a theory designed to explain the significance of the close, emotional bonds that children develop with their caregivers and the implications of those bonds for…
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Cognitive Development in Childhood
Author: Robert Siegler
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module examines what cognitive development is, major theories about how it occurs, the roles of nature and nurture, whether it is continuous or discontinuous, and how research in the area is being used to improve education.
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The Developing Parent
Author: Marissa L. Diener
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module focuses on parenthood as a developmental task of adulthood. Parents take on new roles as their children develop, transforming their identity as a parent as the developmental demands of their children change. The main influences on…
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Emerging Adulthood
Author: Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Emerging adulthood has been proposed as a new life stage between adolescence and young adulthood, lasting roughly from ages 18 to 25. Five features make emerging adulthood distinctive: identity explorations, instability, self-focus, feeling i…
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Social and Personality Development in Childhood
Author: Ross Thompson
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Childhood social and personality development emerges through the interaction of social influences, biological maturation, and the child’s representations of the social world and the self. This interaction is illustrated in a discussion of the…
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Adolescent Development
Author: Jennifer Lansford
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Adolescence is a period that begins with puberty and ends with the transition to adulthood (approximately ages 10–20). Physical changes associated with puberty are triggered by hormones. Cognitive changes include improvements in complex and a…
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Research Methods in Developmental Psychology
Author: Angela Lukowski and Helen Milojevich
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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What do infants know about the world in which they live – and how do they grow and change with age? These are the kinds of questions answered by developmental scientists. This module describes different research techniques that are used to …
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Affective Neuroscience
Author: Eddie Harmon-Jones and Cindy Harmon-Jones
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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This module provides a brief overview of the neuroscience of emotion. It integrates findings from human and animal research to describe the brain networks and associated neurotransmitters involved in basic affective systems.
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Culture and Emotion
Author: Jeanne Tsai
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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How do people’s cultural ideas and practices shape their emotions (and other types of feelings)? In this module, we will discuss findings from studies comparing North American (United States, Canada) and East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, Korean)…
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Drive States
Author: Sudeep Bhatia and George Loewenstein
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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Our thoughts and behaviors are strongly influenced by affective experiences known as drive states. These drive states motivate us to fulfill goals that are beneficial to our survival and reproduction. This module provides an overview of key d…
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Emotional Intelligence
Author: Marc Brackett, Sarah Delaney, and Peter Salovey
Subject: Psychology
Source: Noba
Type: Module
Description:
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In this module, we review the construct of emotional intelligence by examining its underlying theoretical model, measurement tools, validity, and applications in real-world settings. We use empirical research from the past few decades to supp…
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