Description Produto de quase duas décadas de pesquisa, a obra investiga o papel da ação afirmativa na democratização da universidade pública. Apresenta ao leitor um olhar sobre a complexidade dessa política pública, analisando seus aspectos conceituais, jurídicos e morais, assim como as perspectivas históricas, políticas e administrativas. A leitura possibilita não apenas compreender melhor o contexto das posições favoráveis e contrárias às políticas afirmativas, mas também compartilhar de saberes sobre os atores sociais envolvidos, com destaque para a imprensa, e sobre os desdobramentos da adoção dessa estratégia de inclusão em outros países.
Description This volume contains data on two families, 16 genera and 445 species of the families Rhinonyssidae (parasites in the respiratory system of birds) and 12 genera and 110 species of Spinturnicidae (ectoparasites of bats).
Description The 7th volume of my series “Acarorum Catalogus” concerns the mite superfamily Raphignathoidea. The 12 families of this superfamily consist of 69 genera and some 1087 species and are being studied intensely, particularly by acarologists from China, South Africa, Turkey, Iran, Crimea and other countries or areas. Some members of the Raphignathoidea are suitable for biological pest control (Gerson & Smiley 1990, Gerson, Smiley & Ochoa, 2003).
Description Scientists are continuously improving the accelerator and light source technologies to observe the secret of matter as well as the origin of nature which create new opportunities for accelerator physics research. This book provides a glance view on phase space dynamics of electron beam, motion of relativistic electrons in three-dimensional ideal undulator magnetic field, numerical simulation of electron multi-beam linear accelerator EVT, nuclear safety design of high energy accelerator facilities, and radiation safety aspects of operation of electron linear accelerators. The determination of the structure of biomolecules is presently among the best examples of the application of synchrotron radiation. This book also covers synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction study of mammalian connective tissues and related disease. Furthermore, an overview of the versatile applications of ion beam and synchrotron radiation techniques in hair elemental profiling in biomedical studies is also incorporated in this book.
Description In this book Silicon Valley expert Peter Ester describes how these 'schools of startup entrepreneurship' operate and how they empower startups. He interviewed over twenty Silicon Valley accelerators. They are analyzed in terms of mission, selection policy, technology focus, target groups, program features, funding, mentoring and training, and startup showcases. What can Europe and other regions and countries learn from how Silicon Valley accelerators help startups to become successful companies? This book gives the answer. Accelerators in Silicon Valley is a book for entrepreneurs, startup founders, policymakers, practitioners, scholars, and students who share a fascination for building the new startup economy.
Description Parler avec des Grecs et en être compris ? Facile ! si on sait où et comment poser l’accent tonique.Si le grec ancien est polytonique, le grec moderne est monotonique : sa compréhension et son expression dépendent donc de la maîtrise de son accentuation. Ce manuel en donne les règles et les explique, même s’il faut utiliser des mots « savants » comme oxytons, paroxytons, proparoxytons, etc.Les exemples très nombreux (sans oublier les exceptions) proposés par Henri Tonnet nous ramènent systém...
Description La notion d’acceptation sociale, qui reste peu formalisée par la recherche en sciences humaines, est pourtant omniprésente dans les politiques de développement des territoires. Les études d’impact, les politiques participatives, la quête d’une bonne gouvernance territoriale ou d’une durabilité sociale dans la décision publique sont des démarches qui visent toutes, implicitement, à réduire les contestations de la part de la société civile face aux projets de développement, donc à améliorer l’acceptation sociale par une association plus étroite aux processus de transformation du territoire. Cependant, ces dispositifs ne sauraient se réduire à des mesures d’ordre technique et institutionnel qui garantiraient automatiquement une meilleure adhésion aux projets. De nombreuses composantes subjectives régissent la réception sociale des innovations ainsi que les attitudes qui en résultent. Cet ouvrage vise donc à mettre en lumière les critères d’acceptabilité des projets de développement territorial. Dans une approche comparative franco-allemande stimulante, les auteurs développent toute une série de méthodes d’analyse qui interrogent, notamment, la dimension visuelle des projets, les rapports interpersonnels de pouvoir ou encore les représentations et pratiques du territoire, autant de leviers dont l’identification peut aider les chercheurs comme les praticiens du territoire à mieux comprendre les tensions et conflits sociaux.
Description Il y a dix ans, l'OMS n'hésitait pas à qualifier notre système de meilleur du monde. Les avancées médicales spectaculaires du siècle écoulé, comme la coexistence de deux secteurs public et privé, garantie d'un efficace maillage du territoire, l'ensemble soutenu par un financement collectif et solidaire, semblaient faire de l'accès de tous à des soins de qualité et en tous points du pays, un objectif réaliste. Le droit aux soins, l'un de ces droits consacrés il y a plus de soixante ans comme paradigme des nouveaux rapports de l'État et des citoyens, pouvait être garanti sans remettre en cause la liberté de tous et de chacun, celle du patient comme celle du praticien. Toutefois, cet équilibre, déjà acrobatique dans une société en pleine expansion, ne pouvait qu'être affecté par la dégradation des conditions économiques et sociales conjugué au vieillissement de la population et à l'augmentation continue des dépenses de santé. Aux lendemains de l'entrée en vigueur de la loi Hôpital, Patients, Santé et Territoires, au coeur des différents débats sur la réforme de la psychiatrie, sur l'irréductibilité des inégalités, le coût réel de la santé et des questionnements sur la prise en charge future de la dépendance, il est apparu utile d'arrêter un moment le défilé d'images et de préconisations, pour interroger à nouveau ce thème, largement évoqué et jamais épuisé, de l'accès aux soins. En premier lieu sur le plan conceptuel et normatif, en en rappelant les origines historiques, les sources et manifestations textuelles, les liens consubstantiels avec le service public, autant de préalables à l'analyse de ses « traductions singulières », notamment au travers des « urgences populationnelles » (détenus, étrangers et migrants, malades mentaux,…). Dans un second temps, la mesure de l'effectivité de ce droit imposait de réfléchir à ses conditions concrètes, à l'accessibilité des soins, contrainte territoriale certes mais nécessité financière aussi. Toutes ces questions sont depuis longtemps débattues, elles sont loin d'être closes. La pertinence des réponses qui leur seront apportées, cela fut dit à de multiples reprises lors de nos travaux, s'appréciera dans la capacité des pouvoirs publics à ne jamais perdre de vue l'ultime référence, la finalité première : le soin, à tous égards, du patient.
Description Reports on a new generation of Internet controls that establish a new normative terrain in which surveillance and censorship are routine.Internet filtering, censorship of Web content, and online surveillance are increasing in scale, scope, and sophistication around the world, in democratic countries as well as in authoritarian states. The first generation of Internet controls consisted largely of building firewalls at key Internet gateways; China's famous “Great Firewall of China” is one of the first national Internet filtering systems. Today the new tools for Internet controls that are emerging go beyond mere denial of information. These new techniques, which aim to normalize (or even legalize) Internet control, include targeted viruses and the strategically timed deployment of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, surveillance at key points of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent terms of usage policies, and national information shaping strategies. Access Controlled reports on this new normative terrain. The book, a project from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto's Munk Centre for International Studies, Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society, and the SecDev Group, offers six substantial chapters that analyze Internet control in both Western and Eastern Europe and a section of shorter regional reports and country profiles drawn from material gathered by the ONI around the world through a combination of technical interrogation and field research methods.
Description In this work we suggest a meta access control model emulating established access control models by configuration and offering enhanced features like the delegation of rights, ego-centered roles, and decentralized administration. The suggested meta access control model is named ''Access Definition and Query Language'' (ADQL). ADQL is represented by a formal, context-free grammar allowing to express the targeted access control model, policies, facts, and access queries as a formal language.
Description A study of Internet blocking and filtering around the world: analyses by leading researchers and survey results that document filtering practices in dozens of countries.Many countries around the world block or filter Internet content, denying access to information that they deem too sensitive for ordinary citizens—most often about politics, but sometimes relating to sexuality, culture, or religion. Access Denied documents and analyzes Internet filtering practices in more than three dozen countries, offering the first rigorously conducted study of an accelerating trend. Internet filtering takes place in more than three dozen states worldwide, including many countries in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Related Internet content-control mechanisms are also in place in Canada, the United States and a cluster of countries in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of global Internet filtering undertaken by the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto, the Oxford Internet Institute at Oxford University, and the University of Cambridge) and relying on work by regional experts and an extensive network of researchers, Access Denied examines the political, legal, social, and cultural contexts of Internet filtering in these states from a variety of perspectives. Chapters discuss the mechanisms and politics of Internet filtering, the strengths and limitations of the technology that powers it, the relevance of international law, ethical considerations for corporations that supply states with the tools for blocking and filtering, and the implications of Internet filtering for activist communities that increasingly rely on Internet technologies for communicating their missions. Reports on Internet content regulation in forty different countries follow, with each two-page country profile outlining the types of content blocked by category and documenting key findings.ContributorsRoss Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva [as per Rob Faris], Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, Jonathan Zittrain
Description The emergence of the Internet and the digital world has changed the way people access, produce and share information and knowledge. Yet people in Africa face challenges in accessing scholarly publications, journals and learning materials in general. At the heart of these challenges, and solutions to them, is copyright, the branch of intellectual property rights that covers written and related works. This book offers an understanding of the legal and practical issues posed by copyright for access to learning materials in Africa, and identifies the relevant lessons, best policies and best practices that would broaden and deepen this access. This book is based on the work of the African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) research network, launched in late 2007 as a network of researchers committed to probing the relationship between copyright and learning materials access in eight African countries: Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda.
Description Access to Knowledge in Brazil addresses the issues currently facing intellectual property and innovation in the context of developing countries. This book explores how copyrights and patents have influenced the rapidly growing economy of Brazil. This volume contains grassroots perspective sand new research, which is not available anywhere else.
Description This ground-breaking volume features chapters on current issues facing intellectual property, innovation and development policy from the Egyptian perspective. It is an essential overview of the key issues facing access to knowledge, intellectual property rights and development worldwide.
Description Access to Knowledge in India addresses the issues currently facing intellectual property and innovation in India. This book explores how copyrights and patents have influenced the rapidly growing economy of India.
Description A movement emerges to challenge the tightening of intellectual property law around the world.At the end of the twentieth century, intellectual property rights collided with everyday life. Expansive copyright laws and digital rights management technologies sought to shut down new forms of copying and remixing made possible by the Internet. International laws expanding patent rights threatened the lives of millions of people around the world living with HIV/AIDS by limiting their access to cheap generic medicines. For decades, governments have tightened the grip of intellectual property law at the bidding of information industries; but recently, groups have emerged around the world to challenge this wave of enclosure with a new counter-politics of “access to knowledge” or “A2K.” They include software programmers who took to the streets to defeat software patents in Europe, AIDS activists who forced multinational pharmaceutical companies to permit copies of their medicines to be sold in poor countries, subsistence farmers defending their rights to food security or access to agricultural biotechnology, and college students who created a new “free culture” movement to defend the digital commons. Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property maps this emerging field of activism as a series of historical moments, strategies, and concepts. It gathers some of the most important thinkers and advocates in the field to make the stakes and strategies at play in this new domain visible and the terms of intellectual property law intelligible in their political implications around the world. A Creative Commons edition of this work will be freely available online.
Description The book offers a concise guide for librarians, helping them understand the challenges, processes and technologies involved in managing access to online resources. After an introduction the book presents cases of general authentication and authorisation. It helps readers understand web based authentication and provides the fundamentals of IP address recognition in an easy to understand manner. A special chapter is dedicated to Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), followed by an overview of the key concepts of OpenID Connect. The book concludes with basic troubleshooting guidelines and recommendations for further assistance.
Librarians will benefit from this quick and easy read, which demystifies the technologies used, features real-life scenarios, and explains how to competently employ authentication and access management.
Description Assumptions of inability and the perceived costs of employing disabled persons are two of the primary reasons why it has been impossible or difficult for many capable disabled persons to access work and to continue working. This book considers the South African legal framework that seeks to promote such access and critiques it with particular reference to the intersections of the rights to equality and access to social security. One of the primary arguments is the need for a more active conception of social security in which access to work for disabled persons is recognised as an integral component of promoting both social security and substantive equality.
Description Accessible Elements informs science educators about current practices in online and distance education: distance-delivered methods for laboratory coursework, the requisite administrative and institutional aspects of online and distance teaching, and the relevant educational theory. Delivery of university-level courses through online and distance education is a method of providing equal access to students seeking post-secondary education. Distance delivery offers practical alternatives to traditional on-campus education for students limited by barriers such as classroom scheduling, physical location, finances, or job and family commitments. The growing recognition and acceptance of distance education, coupled with the rapidly increasing demand for accessibility and flexible delivery of courses, has made distance education a viable and popular option for many people to meet their science educational goals.
Description For speaking, words in the lexicon are somehow activated from conceptual representations but we know surprisingly little about how this works precisely. Which of the attributes of the concept DOG (e.g. BARKS, IS WALKED WITH A LEASH, CARNIVORE, ANIMATE) have to be activated in a given situation to be able to select the word ‘dog’? Are there things we know about dogs that are always activated for naming and others that are only activated in certain contexts or even never? To date, investigations on lexical access in speaking have largely focused on the effects of distractor nouns on the naming latency of a target noun. We have learned that distractors from the same semantic category (e.g. ‘cat’) hinder naming, but associatively related distractors (‘leash’) may facilitate or hinder naming. However, associatively related words can have all kinds of semantic relationships to a target word, and, with few exceptions, the effects of specific semantic relationships other than membership in the same category as the target concept have not been systematically investigated. This special issue aims at moving forward towards a more detailed account of how precisely conceptual information is used to access the lexicon in speaking and what corresponding format of conceptual representations needs to be assumed.
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