Description Der Krieg um Metz und die Belagerung der Festung im Jahre 1870 gehören zu den eher vernachlässigten Ereignissen des Deutsch-Französischen Krieges. Von den symbolisch hoch aufgeladenen und in der Erinnerung tief verankerten Schauplätzen Sedan oder Versailles verdeckt, wird leicht übersehen, dass die Kapitulation der Festung Metz militärisch von kriegsentscheidender Bedeutung war und das Schicksal Elsass-Lothringens bestimmte. Zugleich sind die Ereignisse um Metz Beispiel dafür, dass Krieg, wie bei Clausewitz nachzulesen, ein sich Einlassen auf Ungewisses, wenig Kalkulierbares bedeutet, denn keineswegs ging alles so glatt, wie die gefilterte Memoirenliteratur späterer Jahre glauben machen wollte, und die Opferzahlen lagen im Vergleich zu allen anderen Kriegsschauplätzen ungeheuer hoch. Ziel der Studie ist es, den Ausnahmezustand des Kriegsalltags mit all seinen Folgen für Soldaten und Zivilisten innerhalb des Festungs- und Garnisonsstandortes zu schildern. Über die Lebens- und Gedankenwelt der Menschen im Banne des Ereignisses hinaus wird nach den davon ausgehenden Wirkungslinien in die Zwischenkriegszeit gefragt - nach Metz als einem Schauplatz und Erinnerungsort nationaler Erziehung.
Description The influence of the cell size of mobile communication networks onto the exposure to electromagnetic fields is investigated in this work. The exposure is assessed by means of a radio network planning. In a novel approach the path loss for the coverage and the path loss for the exposure are distinguished. The developed model is applied to different wave propagation models and cell structures. The results are discussed.
Description The impact of global climate change on crop production has emerged as a major research priority during the past decade. Understanding abiotic stress factors such as temperature and drought tolerance and biotic stress tolerance traits such as insect pest and pathogen resistance in combination with high yield in plants is of paramount importance to counter climate change related adverse effects on the productivity of crops. In this multi-authored book, we present synthesis of information for developing strategies to combat plant stress. Our effort here is to present a judicious mixture of basic as well as applied research outlooks so as to interest workers in all areas of plant science. We trust that the information covered in this book would bridge the much-researched area of stress in plants with the much-needed information for evolving climate-ready crop cultivars to ensure food security in the future.
Description ""This book is not intended to cover all known abiotic stresses or every possible technique used to understand plant tolerance but, instead, to describe some of the widely used approaches to addressing such major abiotic stresses as drought, salinity, extreme temperature, cold, light, calcareous soils, excessive irradiation, ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and flooding, and to describe major or newly emerging techniques employed in understanding and improving plant tolerance. Among the strategies for plant stress survival, examples of both avoidance and tolerance are presented in detail and comprehensive case studies of progress and directions in several agricultural crops such as apple, walnut, grape and wheat are included.""
Description Horticultural crop yield and quality depend on genotype, environmental conditions, and production management. In particular, adverse environmental conditions may greatly affect crop performance, reducing crop yield by 50%–70%. Abiotic stresses such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and ultraviolet radiation affect multiple physiological and biochemical mechanisms in plants as they attempt to cope with the stress conditions. However, different crop species can have different sensitivities or tolerances to specific abiotic stresses. Tolerant plants may activate different strategies to adapt to or avoid the negative effect of abiotic stresses. At the physiological level, photosynthetic activity and light-use efficiency of plants may be modulated to enhance tolerance against the stress. At the biochemical level, several antioxidant systems may be activated, and many enzymes may produce stress-related metabolites to help avoid cellular damage, including compounds such as proline, glycine betaine, and amino acids. Within each crop species there is a wide variability of tolerance to abiotic stresses, and some wild relatives may carry useful traits for enhancing the tolerance to abiotic stresses in their progeny through either traditional or biotechnological breeding. The research papers and reviews presented in this book provide an update of the scientific knowledge of crop interactions with abiotic stresses.
Description World population is growing at an alarming rate and is anticipated to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand, agricultural productivity is not increasing at a required rate to keep up with the food demand. The reasons for this are water shortages, depleting soil fertility and mainly various abiotic stresses. The fast pace at which developments and novel findings that are recently taking place in the cutting edge areas of molecular biology and basic genetics, have reinforced and augmented the efficiency of science outputs in dealing with plant abiotic stresses. In depth understanding of the stresses and their effects on plants is of paramount importance to evolve effective strategies to counter them. This book is broadly dived into sections on the stresses, their mechanisms and tolerance, genetics and adaptation, and focuses on the mechanic aspects in addition to touching some adaptation features. The chief objective of the book hence is to deliver state of the art information for comprehending the nature of abiotic stress in plants. We attempted here to present a judicious mixture of outlooks in order to interest workers in all areas of plant sciences.
Description Plants, unlike animals, are sessile. This demands that adverse changes in their environment are quickly recognized, distinguished and responded to with suitable reactions. Drought, heat, cold and salinity are among the major abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and productivity. In general, abiotic stress often causes a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that unfavorably affect plant growth, development and productivity. Drought, salinity, extreme temperatures (cold and heat) and oxidative stress are often interrelated; these conditions singularly or in combination induce cellular damage. To cope with abiotic stresses, of paramount significance is to understand plant responses to abiotic stresses that disturb the homeostatic equilibrium at cellular and molecular level in order to identify a common mechanism for multiple stress tolerance. This multi authored edited compilation attempts to put forth an all-inclusive biochemical and molecular picture in a systems approach wherein mechanism and adaptation aspects of abiotic stress are dealt with. The chief objective of the book hence is to deliver state of the art information for comprehending the effects of abiotic stress in plants at the cellular level.
Description Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function.
In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity.
Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.
Description Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.
Description Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality.
This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement.
This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:
- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.
- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity.
- Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.
- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.
- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.
Description In der Anwendung von Z-R-Beziehungen ist eine der Hauptfehlerquellen bei der Ableitung von Niederschlagsintensitäten aus Radardaten zu sehen. Eine Verbesserung der radargestützen Niederschlagsmessung wird durch die Clusterung der Niederschläge in Teilkollektive erreicht. Für die entstandenen Niederschlagsklassen wird anhand neuronaler Netze eine Abbildungsvorschrift zwischen Parametern, die aus dem Vertikalprofil der Reflektivität abgeleitet wurden, und der Niederschlagsrate entwickelt.
Description Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment in road traffic. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio, navigation system and passengers. The environment outside the car becomes also more and more complex. Car drivers’ gaze behaviour while being distracted is studied on the basis of some examples. Furthermore different performance indicators are analysed.
Description O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a observação da influência de A Condição Pós-Moderna sobre as abordagens do pós-moderno em música realizadas após a 1980. Para tal tarefa, será utilizada a noção lyotardiana de pós-moderno como incredulidade nas metanarrativas de legitimação do saber. Esta influência será observada perante importantes textos relativos ao pós-moderno musical e na maneira como algumas obras da música clássica de concerto realizada na década de 1990 e 2000 se relacionam com tal incredulidade.
Description Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases, the use of an introduced name, such as Gove, has been contested by local Indigenous people. The 19 studies brought together in this book present an overview of current issues involving Indigenous placenames across the whole of Australia, drawing on the disciplines of geography, linguistics, history, and anthropology. They include meticulous studies of historical records, and perspectives stemming from contemporary Indigenous communities. The book includes a wealth of documentary information on some 400 specific placenames, including those of Sydney Harbour, the Blue Mountains, Canberra, western Victoria, the Lake Eyre district, the Victoria River District, and southwestern Cape York Peninsula.
The author analyzes modern Russian history from a new perspective. Due to the ideological heritage of the XIXth and XXth centuries, the social settings of the sociopolitical history of the USSR (1917–1945) have not been fully identified. Detailed examination of ideological and political concepts shows that the revolution of 1917 became not a middle class, proletarian movement, but rather a plebeian one. The misjudgment by the new power enabled growth but caused tremendous losses of human lives and material damages. Socialization of economy and strict centralization led to a new social structure and established terror as an instrument for social reorganization. WWII revealed the necessity of a correction of these developments, but the events of the Cold War circumvented any further considerations.
Description "The relational complexity of urban and rural landscapes in space and in time.
The development of historical geographical information systems (HGIS) and other methods from the digital humanities have revolutionised historical research on cultural landscapes. Additionally, the opening up of increasingly diverse collections of source material, often incomplete and difficult to interpret, has led to methodologically innovative experiments. One of today’s major challenges, however, concerns the concepts and tools to be deployed for mapping processes of transformation—that is, interpreting and imagining the relational complexity of urban and rural landscapes, both in space and in time, at micro- and macro-scale.
Mapping Landscapes in Transformation gathers experts from different disciplines, active in the fields of historical geography, urban and landscape history, archaeology and heritage conservation. They are specialised in a wide variety of space-time contexts, including regions within Europe, Asia, and the Americas, and periods from antiquity to the 21st century."
Description A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases has been observed over the past years. Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide with a significant impact on human health and an associated economic burdens. Campylobacteriosis human cases have been generally correlated with the handling, preparation and consumption of poultry. In 2017, the European Commission regulation has amended Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on the hygiene of foodstuffs as regards Campylobacter on broiler carcasses stating a limit of 1000 cfu/g. Campylobacter is also present in other farm animals and is frequently found on a range of foodstuffs due to cross contamination. Among the pathogenic species, C. jejuni is the most prevalent species followed by C. coli. Current guidelines highlight the importance of biosecurity but these measures are failing to mitigate the risk of pathogenic Campylobacter. As an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter does not multiply under atmospheric oxygen concentration at ambient temperatures. It therefore constitutes a puzzle as to how it can survive from farm to retail outlets. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistence, survival and pathogenesis appear to be unique to this pathogen. Recent research has indicated how genomic polymorphism, restricted catabolic capacity, self regulation or deregulation of genes, bacterial cooperation and unknown contamination routes may be connected to this specificity.This book includes original studies on both C. jejuni and C. coli species dealing with epidemiology and animal carriage, host interaction, control strategies, metabolism and regulation specificities of these two pathogenic species, methodology to improve cultural techniques and chicken gut microbiota challenged with Campylobacter.
Description The subject matter of this book is the information on the abrasive technology methods, the characteristics of the methods (for example, the technological parameters, tools, and machines), innovative methods, characteristics of surface structure and surface properties after this type of mechanical process, and application in various industrial branches and other technical and technological domains. Abrasive technology is very important, for example, in precision component manufacturing and nano-technology devices. The aim of this book is to present information on the characteristics and applications of abrasive technology, abrasive tools, tests, and also the innovative methods of this technology. This information enables scientists, engineers, and designers to ensure the soundness and integrity of the fabricated components and to develop new techniques effectively.
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